The EdgarStat Blog explores issues in transfer pricing and application of the transactional net margin method (TNMM or CPM in the US) and other enterprise profit-based methods.
On February 20, 2023 Ampol Limited settled its procurement hub transfer pricing dispute with the Australian Tax Office (ATO). Procurement affiliates have been a point of emphasis for the ATO in recent years, and have been gaining the attention of other tax authorities, including the US IRS.
Topics: Australia Australian Tax Office Singapore TNMM/CPM Tax Controversy Procurement HubRead more
A 2008 restructuring transferred the European rights to the McDonald’s intangibles to McD Europe Franchising Sàrl, a Luxembourg-resident subsidiary with branches in both Switzerland and the U.S. While this migration of intangible assets created substantial controversy in Europe, the real transfer pricing concern would be an IRS issue and not an issue for the French Tax Authority (FTA) if the royalty rate remained at 5%.
Topics: Royalty Rates Intangibles Europe Best Method TNMM/CPM Tax ControversyRead more
Transfer pricing practitioners in the US as well as in other nations often face the dilemma that clients wish to establish intercompany management fees as a percentage of revenues while tax authorities may test the implied cost plus from any intercompany management policy.
Topics: Intercompany Services Management Fees CUP State Transfer Pricing TNMM/CPMRead more
Licensees bear significant commercial risk when they use valuable intangible assets owned by another entity. As such, any method that affords them with an expected return to its tangible assets that is only as high as the overall enterprise’s cost of capital is inconsistent with sound economics.
Topics: US Transfer Pricing Royalty Rates Intangibles Medtronic Section 482 TNMM/CPM Tax ControversyRead more
This discussion presents a simplified illustration of the issues with respect to the unspecified method applied in Medtronic III in contrast to the IRS' extreme CPM approach and a traditional RPSM approach based on sound financial economics.
Topics: US Transfer Pricing Residual Profit Split Method Unspecified Method US Internal Revenue Service Intangibles Tax Policy Medtronic Section 482 TNMM/CPM Tax ControversyRead more
Italy’s Supreme Court remanded May 17, 2022 a case in which Regional Tax Commission of Lombardy challenged the transfer pricing between Promgas Spa and Gazprom Export, finding alleged deficiency in the tax authority’s application of the Transactional Net Margin Method (TNMM).
Topics: Resale Price Method Oil and Gas Transfer Pricing CUP TNMM/CPMRead more
Use of the CPM/TNMM to determine royalty rates for valuable intangibles in transfer pricing is incompatible with basic financial economics.
Topics: DEMPE Royalty Rates OECD Guidelines US Internal Revenue Service Intangibles Tax Policy TNMM/CPMRead more
To determine whether the usual financial ratios provide insights into what would represent an arm's length range, any analysis of controlled healthcare distributors must account for the underlying facts surrounding the functions and expenses occurred by the distribution affiliate.
Topics: Pharmaceutical Industry Benchmarking Resale Price Method TNMM/CPM Tax ControversyRead more
Applied properly, the Comparable Profits Method (CPM) can be a useful approach for well-defined transfer pricing issues, such as the appropriate profitability of a sales affiliate. Unfortunately, CPM is often applied mechanically without regard for economic principles and functional comparability.
Topics: Benchmarking Profit Indicators Tax Policy State Transfer Pricing TNMM/CPMRead more
Brazil’s unique transfer pricing rules have allowed multinationals to shift income to tax havens in certain situations. We explore through the lens of the Macopolo case how Brazil could benefit from adoption of the arm's length standard.
Topics: Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Brazil OECD Guidelines Tax Policy TNMM/CPM Tax ControversyRead more
In February 2021, the Supreme Court of Canada declined to hear the Canadian Revenue Agency's (CRA) appeal in its case against uranium multinational Cameco Corporation. However, this only marked the end of Round 1, as the courts only ruled on 8 of 14 years under review.
Topics: Mining and Extractives Canadian Revenue Agency Profit Indicators TNMM/CPM Tax ControversyRead more
A recent article asserted that state tax authorities should use the Comparable Profits Method (CPM) with care in the evaluation of transfer pricing for tangible goods. However, some of the examples cited, including the recent Coca Cola case, in their piece are misplaced for reasons we will address.
Topics: Tax Policy State Transfer Pricing TNMM/CPM Tax ControversyRead more
Ad hoc adjustments are a risky endeavor in transfer pricing. Using regression analysis, we can test if asset intensity is relevant to explain the behavior of the operating profit markup or profit margin and calculate a reliable adjustment to the profit indicator.
Topics: Tutorial Asset Intensity Adjustment Profit Indicators TNMM/CPMRead more
The prevalent use of quartiles to determine profit indicators often results in a wide (unreliable range) and ad hoc assets adjustments. These problems can be solved by using regression analysis, which produces more defensible statistical ranges of the profit indicator resistant to audit scrutiny.
Topics: Tutorial Profit Indicators TNMM/CPMRead more
Changes to tax laws are often seen as the primary solution to curb profit shifting. However, proper application of the arm's length principle alongside BEPS CbCR disclosures already offer powerful tools in this endeavor.
Topics: Pharmaceutical Industry Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Tax Policy TNMM/CPMRead more
Comparability is a key issue in transfer pricing that is often not fully appreciated. However, comparability issues are hardly uncommon in transfer pricing controversies and can create a trickle-down effect that leads to major taxation issues.
Topics: Comparability Limited Risk Distributor Profit Indicators TNMM/CPMRead more